Aims: In Africa, local poultry production is main source of meat and eggs though disease is a major constraint. This study appraised the influence of management on local poultry exposure to infection and their response to vaccination and medication through feed.
Study Design: Local poultry were sampled, before intervention with vaccines and medication. After intervention the local poultry were monitored every fortnight.
Place and Duration of Study: The local poultry were sampled in Zaria, Nigeria and the samples were analyzed at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Laboratories at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Methodology: Flock information was obtained through a structured questionnaire and poultry blood, feacal samples and ectoparasites were collected after physical examination. Pack cell volume, Salmonella, Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibodies were analyzed by microhaematocrit method, rapid plate agglutination, haemagglutination inhibition and quantitative agar gel precipitin tests respectively. Haemoparasites, ectoparasites and endoparasites infecting the local poultry were assessed.
Results: The total number of all farmers kept chickens but some also kept ducks, turkeys, guinea fowls and pigeons. The mean flock size for local poultry, chickens and ducks managed extensively, semi-intensively or intensively were 37.6 ± 6.3, 26 ± 7 and 2.4 ± 1.7 respectively. Menacanthus stramineus infested chickens were controlled with Coumaphors. Emeria species, Raillietina species, Plasmodium gallinaceum and Aegyptianella pullorum parasites were identified and treated. Local poultry had antibodies to Salmonella, Newcastle and Gumboro disease and their antibody response to vaccination varies with age, species, management and time of vaccination. Prior to vaccination, the mean Newcastle disease antibody titre of adult chickens was ≥ 4 log2 though that for growers was < 4 log2.
Conclusion: Disease control in local poultry is feasible when vaccination is concurrently conducted with medication but further studies are needed to establish the most appropriate intervention time to ensure minimal number of intervention for optimal result.
An eight-week study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary rice offal inclusion levels and Natuzyme® enzyme supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Two hundred and ten 7-day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acre strain were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments groups with each treatment having thirty birds. The experiment had two phases; starter (28 days) and finisher phase (28 days). The seven dietary treatments were 0% (T1) without enzyme and without rice offal, 5% (T2 and T3) with and without enzyme, 10% (T4 and T5) with and without enzyme, and 15% (T6 and T7) with and without enzyme supplementation at 250 mg per kg diet. The experiment was a 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design having treatment groups replicated three times, and each replicate had 10 birds, which were randomly allocated to the experimental diets. Performance at the starter phase showed no significant differences (P>0.05) across the treatment groups for the main effect, interaction and treatment combination. There was non-significant difference (P>0.05) for rice offal level main effect. At finisher level, significant differences (P<0.05) occurred in the enzyme level and all were significantly higher at 0.025%. No statistical differences (P>0.05) for interaction. Results of the nutrient digestibility showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the rice offal level for ash and NFE, but no difference in the enzyme levels for main effect and interaction. Significant (P<0.05) differences occurred in the treatments combination for dry matter and crude protein. Broiler starter and finisher performed better at 0.025% enzyme supplementation of rice offal.
It was recommended that 0.025% enzyme should be included in rice offal and 15% of the enzyme treated rice offal should be used in finisher broiler diets.
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of egg size on fertility, hatchability, keets mortalities and growth performance of indigenous Guinea fowl in Ghana. The study was carried out for a period of two (2) months. One hundred and thirty five day-old keets hatched from three different egg size groups: Small (23-39 g); medium (40-42 g) and large (43-49 g) were used in a completely randomize design. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance with the aid of GenStat version 11.1 (2008). The results from the present study showed that fertility and hatchability were significantly (P= .05) higher in medium size eggs and lower in small size eggs. The cumulative mortality and percentage mortality rates during the experimental period were significantly (P= .05) higher in small size eggs and lower in medium size eggs. Number of survival and percentage survivability significantly (P= .05) increased with an increase in the size of the eggs. Egg size had significant (P= .05) effect on all growth parameters measured. Initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake significantly (P= .05) increased with increasing egg size. Feed efficiency significantly increased (P= .05) with decreasing egg size. It was concluded that medium size eggs had higher fertility and hatchability. Number of survival and percentage survivability increased with increasing egg size. Initial body weight, final body weight, body weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake and daily feed intake increased with increasing egg size. Feed conversion ratio decreased with increasing egg size.
Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in diets of finishing lambs on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, in vitro gas emissions, growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.
Background: Replacing cereal grains and oilseed meals with dried distillers grains can reduce feeding cost and utilise an abundant waste byproduct of the ethanol industry.
Methodology: Thirty native Mexican male lambs of four months old and 24 ± 2. 41 kg BW, were used in the experiment which lasted for 56-days using a complete randomized design (n = 10). Treatments were: 1) Control (0% DDGS); 2) (20% DDGS/DM basis) and 3) (40% DDGS/DM basis).
Results: DMI, ADG, final body weight (BW) and carcass characteristics were not different (P > 0.05) among the treatments. However, apparent digestibility (AD) of DM (ADDM), ADNDF, ADADF and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) after 9, 12 and 24 h of incubation showed a quadratic effect while increasing level of DDGS. Rumen fluid pH was greater and ruminal VFA concentration was lower for 20% DDGS treatment (quadratic effect P = 0.05). The proportion of acetate: propionate and concentration of ammonia nitrogen, were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Biogas production was maximal at 40% DDGS (linear effect, P = 0.03) while a quadratic effect on CO2 (P = 0.016) and CH4 (P = 0.023) were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) on the physicochemical composition and characteristics of the meat of lambs fed different levels of DDGS were found.
Conclusion: The 40% DM inclusion of corn DDGS in diets for growing Mexican native lambs maintains its productive performance without significantly affecting the ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, carcass characteristics and meat quality. DDGS can partially replace grains, oilseed meals and forage due to its high protein content and energy level. If DDGS is low in cost compared to oilseed meals, it may be included in finishing lamb diets.
Coccidiosis is a disease that is caused by protozoan parasite belonging to the subclass coccidia and family Eimeridae, developing within the intestine of most domestic and wild animals and birds. Seven species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, E. praecox and E. tenella) are recognized as infecting chickens. This study is part of the diagnostic investigations carried out to record the incidence of coccidiosis in chickens from different poultry farms sent to Central Diagnostic Laboratory of National veterinary research institute Vom Nigeria for diagnosis. The clinical signs observed include greenish, yellowish, brown bloody stool, inactivity, off feed, weight lost, huddling, drop in feed intake, drop in production, emaciation, comb and wattles pale, anemia and sudden death. Gross lessions include ballooned and haemorrhagic intestine while histopathological lesions revealed loss of epithelial tissue, congestion of blood vessels which indicated disruption followed by leakage of blood, severe mucosal oedema, necrosis of submucosa, loss of villi and marked haemorrhages, presence oocyst within the intestinal villi and lymphoid cells showing hyperplasia. It can be concluded that clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination can be used as a tool for diagnosis of coccidiosis.